Friday, January 22, 2021

Special broadcasts by AIR for Republic Day 2021

Special broadcasts by All India Radio for Republic Day 2021

India is celebrating its 72nd Republic Day on 26 Jan 2021 (Tuesday). All India Radio will broadcast special programs in connection with the Republic Day celebrations as follows:

25th January 2021 (Monday) : Eve of Republic Day

1330 UTC (1900 IST) onwards Hon'ble President's address to the nation in Hindi and English. This will be broadcast by all stations of AIR on MW, SW, FM. Shortly after this broadcast, the local stations will broadcast its translations in local languages.

SW frequencies:

kHz     kW       Station

4760    7          Leh                
4835    10        Gangtok  (Off air)                   
4950    30        Srinagar          
5040    50        Jeypore                      
5050    10        Aizawl  (Off air)  
6030    250      Delhi              



Also on DTH Channels/ airlivenews 24x7

26 January 2021 (Tuesday) : Republic Day

Live running commentary of Republic Day parade and cultural pageant from 0345 UTC (0915 IST) onwards :

Hindi : 9950 kHz (Delhi 100 kW), 11740 (Delhi 100 kW) 
English : 15030 (Bengaluru 500 kW) 
(Cancelling External Service in Nepali & Baluchi languages),   

Also on MW/FM frequencies as per below mentioned links.



Also on DTH Channels/ airlivenews 24x7

The following regional stations will change from their Morning frequencies  on 60 Meters (4 and 5 MHz frequencies) to their day time frequencies between  0335-0350 UTC (ie much earlier than usual) as follows :

6000 Leh
6085 Gangtok  (Off air)  

The following stations are already scheduled to be on air daily at this time and will also relay the running commentary.

5040 Jeypore
6110 Srinagar
7295 Aizwal  (Off air)  

Please send your reception reports on line at: http://pbinfo.air.org.in/feedback/


Live streaming of the above programs is available in:


Those who would like to watch the programs on Doordarshan TV  can check in:

DD National Channel:

73,
Jose Jacob and Alokesh Gupta



Tuesday, January 19, 2021

Public Consultation for the use of the Radio Frequency Spectrum for Terrestrial Broadcasting Radio on MF and VHF Radio Frequency Bands in Indonesia

Public Consultation on the Draft PM Kominfo regarding the Master Plan and Technical Provisions for the Use of the Radio Frequency Spectrum for the Purposes of Terrestrial Broadcasting Radio on MF and VHF Radio Frequency Bands

Press Release No. 08 / HM / KOMINFO / 01/2021
Friday, January 8, 2021

About

Public Consultation on the Draft PM Kominfo regarding the Master Plan and Technical Provisions for the Use of the Radio Frequency Spectrum for the Purposes of Terrestrial Broadcasting Radio on the MF and VHF Band II Radio Frequency Bands

The Ministry of Communication and Information opens a public consultation on the Draft Ministerial Regulation (RPM) on Communication and Information Technology regarding the Master Plan and the Technical Provisions for the Use of Radio Frequency Spectrum for the Purposes of Terrestrial Broadcasting Radio in the Medium Frequency Radio Frequency Band and the Very High Frequency Band II Radio Frequency Band.

This is in accordance with the provisions of Law Number 12 Year 2011 concerning the Formation of Legislative Regulations, relating to the participation of the public in drafting laws and regulations as well as a concrete manifestation of service efforts to the public in broadcasting operations.

This RPM is compiled as an improvement of the Minister of Communications and Information Technology Regulation which regulates radio frequency master plan for the purpose of conducting Amplitude Modulation (AM) broadcast radio on Medium Frequency (MF) and Minister of Communication and Information Technology Regulation which regulates radio frequency master plan for the purpose of holding Radio Frequency Modulation (FM ).

This RPM was prepared by adjusting the provisions for the use of radio frequency spectrum for Amplitude Modulation radio broadcasting purposes on Medium Frequency to The Final Acts of the Regional Administrative LF / MF Broadcasting Conference ( Regions 1 and 3 ) Geneva, 1975 (GE75) and ITU-R Rules of Procedure . In addition, this RPM follows up on the direction of digital transformation policies and strategies in the Presidential Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 18 of 2020 concerning the National Medium-Term Development Plan for 2020-2024, and anticipates developments in broadcast technology in Law Number 11 of 2020 concerning Job Creation.

The matters regulated in this Draft Ministerial Regulation include:

Radio frequency bands regulated for terrestrial broadcast radio purposes include: a) Medium Frequency (MF) radio frequency bands in the radio frequency range of 526.5 kHz to 1606.5 kHz; and b) Very High Frequency Band II radio frequency band in the radio frequency range 87 MHz to 108 MHz.

Technologies regulated for terrestrial broadcast radio include: a) Amplitude Modulation (AM) based technology standards for terrestrial analog broadcast radios in the MF Radio Frequency Band; b) technology standards based on Frequency Modulation (FM) for terrestrial analog radio broadcasts in the VHF Band II Radio Frequency Band; and c) Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) based technology standards for terrestrial digital radio broadcasts in the MF Radio Frequency Band and the VHF Band II Radio Frequency Band.
This Ministerial Regulation Draft will later repeal: a) Regulation of the Minister of Communication and Information Technology Number 4 of 2014 concerning Radio Frequency Master Plan for the Purposes of Organizing Broadcast Amplitude Modulation (AM) Radio on Medium Frequency (MF) Radio Frequency Band 535 kHz - 1605 , 5 kHz (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia of 2014 Number 101); and b) Regulation of the Minister of Communication and Information Technology Number 3 of 2017 concerning Radio Frequency Master Plan for the Purposes of Organizing Radio Broadcast Frequency Modulation (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia of 2017 Number 187).

The preparation of the RPM as intended uses the main references from ITU and ETSI which includes the following documents:

The Final Acts of the Regional Administrative LF / MF Broadcasting Conference (Regions 1 and 3) Geneva 1975 related to international regulations on radio broadcasting in the MF radio frequency band;

ITU Radio Regulation , relating to the allocation of radio frequency bands for broadcasting services and the determination of broadcast radio emission classes in MF and VHF Band II radio frequency bands;

ITU-R Rules of Procedure (2017 edition), relating to the need for the use of digital technology in MF radio frequency bands;

ITU-R Recommendation BS.412, regarding the protection ratio between analog technologies in the VHF Band II radio frequency band;

ITU-R Recommendation BS.560, regarding the ratio of protection between analog technologies in the MF radio frequency band;

ITU-R Recommendation BS.1114, related to the terrestrial digital broadcast radio technology standards that have been recognized by ITU;

ITU-R Recommendation BS.1615, regarding the ratio of protection between analog technology and digital technology in the MF radio frequency band;

ITU-R Recommendation BS.1660, regarding the protection ratio between analog technology and digital technology in the VHF Band II radio frequency band;

ITU-R Recommendation SM.328, relating to the regulation of analog broadcast radio emission in MF (AM) radio frequency band;

ITU-R Recommendation SM.1009, relating to the need for protection of the flight navigation system (ILS, VOR, GBAS) from VHF Band II (FM) analog radio broadcasts around 108.0 MHz radio frequency;

ITU-R Recommendation SM.1541, relating to the regulation of analog broadcast radio emission in the VHF Band II (FM) radio frequency band;

ETSI EN 302 017, relating to the emission mask of analog broadcast radio in the MF (AM) radio frequency band;

ETSI EN 302 018, related to the emission mask of analog broadcast radio in the VHF Band II (FM) radio frequency band;

ETSI EN 302 245, related to emission mask from digital broadcast radio in MF radio frequency band and VHF Band II radio frequency band; and also pay attention to the results of the Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM) technology trial conducted by the Indonesian Radio Public Broadcasting Institute (LPP RRI).

The RPM document regarding the Master Plan and Technical Provisions for the Use of Radio Frequency Spectrum for Terrestrial Broadcasting Radio Purposes in the Medium Frequency Radio  Frequency  Band and the Very High Frequency Band II Radio  Frequency  Band, are as follows:


In order to improve and provide opportunities for the public to submit responses to the RPM, it is necessary to conduct a public consultation until January 26, 2021 and input can be submitted via email to the address benny.elian@kominfo.go.id , musf001@kominfo.go.id , and aria001@kominfo.go.id

Ferdinandus Setu
Plt. Head of Public Relations Bureau of the Ministry of Communication and Information
Tel / Fax: 021-3504024
Twitter @kemkominfo FB: @kemkominfo IG: @kemenkominfo

(Press Release)

Friday, January 15, 2021

All India Radio's external service to be back on shortwave

With effect from 15th Jan, 2021, trial transmissions of All India Radio external service will be back on three platforms - shortwave, DTH & Live streaming. AIR external services broadcasts were suspended due to Covid pandemic from 24th March 2020. There will be 4 services, two neighborhood services ( NS I, NS II ) and two world services (WS I, WS II) round the clock in different languages. Regular transmission will commence from 26th Jan, 2021.

Schedule for AIR External Services trial broadcasts :

In Pure DRM mode

UTC        IST      LANGUAGE SERVICE FREQ  TXER SITE
-----------------------------------------------------
0945-1045 1515-1615 RUSSIAN  WS II  17830  BENGALURU
1930-2030 0100-0200 FRENCH   WS II  9620   BENGALURU

In Analogue mode

UTC        IST      LANGUAGE SERVICE FREQ       TXER SITE
-------------------------------------------------------------
2345-0115 0515-0645 CHINESE    WS I  13695       BENGALURU
0130-0230 0700-0800 INDONESIAN WS I  13695       BENGALURU
0245-0330 0815-0900 THAI       WS I  13645       BENGALURU
0245-0345 0815-0915 BURMESE    NS II 15030       KINGSWAY, DELHI
0300-0400 0830-0930 BALUCHI    NS I  9950        KINGSWAY,DELHI
0400-0500 0930-1030 NEPALI(1)  NS II 11740,15030 KINGSWAY/BENGALURU
0500-0600 1030-1130 ARABIC(1)  WS I  15030       BENGALURU
0615-0645 1145-1215 SINHALA(1) NS II 11560       KINGSWAY,DELHI
0745-0845 1315-1415 DARI(1)    NS I  11560       KINGSWAY,DELHI
0800-0830 1330-1400 PERSIAN(1) WS I  15030       BENGALURU
0845-0930 1415-1500 PASHTU(1)  NS I  11560,17830 KINGSWAY/BENGALURU
0900-1000 1430-1530 NEPALI(2)  NS II 9950        KINGSWAY,DELHI
1045-1200 1615-1730 TIBETAN    WS I  11560       KINGSWAY,DELHI
1215-1315 1745-1845 SWAHILI    WS I  15030       BENGALURU
1300-1500 1830-2030 SINHALA(2) NS I  15030       KINGSWAY,DELHI
1330-1430 1900-2000 DARI(2)    NS I  9950,11560  KINGSWAY/BENGALURU
1430-1545 2000-2015 PASHTU(2)  NS I  9950,11560  KINGSWAY/BENGALURU
1615-1730 2145-2300 PERSIAN(2) WS I  9620        BENGALURU
1730-1930 2300-0100 ARABIC(2)  WS I  9620        BENGALURU

Please note below mentioned services will not be started immediately by AIR External Services Division due to non-availibility of program content as well as aerials at Kingsway, Delhi. Same will be broadcast as soon as program content & aerials are available.

0300-0400 0830-0930 BALUCHI    NS I  9950    KINGSWAY,DELHI
0245-0330 0815-0900 THAI       WS I  13645   BENGALURU
0245-0345 0815-0915 BURMESE    NS II 15030   KINGSWAY, DELHI
0615-0645 1145-1215 SINHALA(1) NS II 11560   KINGSWAY,DELHI
1045-1200 1615-1730 TIBETAN    WS I  11560   KINGSWAY,DELHI
1215-1315 1745-1845 SWAHILI    WS I  15030   BENGALURU
1300-1500 1830-2030 SINHALA(2) NS I  15030   KINGSWAY, DELHI
1730-1930 2300-0100 ARABIC(2)  WS I  9620    BENGALURU
0945-1045 1515-1615 RUSSIAN  WS II  17830    BENGALURU  **PURE DRM  


(Alokesh Gupta)

BBC requests listeners' observations on jamming in Asia

Chris Greenway (via WOR list) reports that his colleagues in the BBC's transmission department are seeking observations of the jamming of some BBC WS English transmissions from listeners in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Hong Kong, South-East Asia and Central Asia. They would particularly like to receive reception reports about the following frequencies:

5970 kHz at 0000-0100 UTC
12095 kHz at 0100-0200 UTC
12065 kHz at 1200-1300 UTC
15310 kHz at 1200-1300 UTC
9410 kHz at 1300-1400 UTC
12065 kHz at 1300-1400 UTC (different site to 1200-1300 transmission on same freq, so reports on both hours requested)

If you can help, please send your reports to worldservice.letters@bbc.co.uk, making sure you give your location. You can keep the reports simple, just giving date, time, frequency and what you heard.

Saturday, January 02, 2021

Changes in news timings of All India Radio wef 1st Jan 2021

Several changes to timings of News Bulletins on All India Radio Home Service is noted from 1 Jan 2021. The monitored details are given in:

Friday, January 01, 2021

FM tropo logs - 1st Jan, 2021

Excellent tropo condition in North India today, heavy fog since morning.

Band 2 Tropo Logs at 0500-0530 UTC, 1st Jan 2021

90.8 Suno Sharda, Greater Noida CRS
91.2 Radio Lok Manch, Greater Noida  CRS
91.9 Radio City, Bareilley
93.7 Fever FM, Agra
94.1 Current FM, Aligarh
94.5 Tadka FM,Agra
94.9 Fever FM, Aligarh
98.6 Radio Bheri FM,Nepal
99.4 Shuklaphanta FM, Nepal, CRS
100.2 AIR Patiala
100.4 AIR Bareilley
100.5 AIR Dehradun
100.6 AIR Jalandhar
100.7 AIR Lucknow
100.9 AIR Kasauli (relaying AIR Jalandhar)
101.2 AIR Unid weak
101.3 AIR Aligarh
101.4 AIR Kurukshetra
101.6 AIR Lucknow
101.7 AIR Meerut
101.8 Kantipur FM, Nepal
101.9 AIR Kotputli
102.1 AIR Mussourie
102.2 AIR Mathura
102.3 AIR Hissar
102.8 AIR Unid
103.0 AIR Jhansi
103.1 AIR Alwar
103.4 AIR Agra
103.6 AIR Amritsar
103.7 AIR Kanpur VBS
104.6 Tadka FM, Aligarh
107.4 Radio Noida , CRS

(SONY XDR-S10HDiP + Stacked GP)

Tuesday, December 29, 2020

Sri Lanka to sell airtime on ex-DW relay station to Encompass Digital Media

ECONOMYNEXT – Sri Lanka has agreed to sell airtime on a former Deutsche Welle relay station in Trincomallee in the North East of the island to UK based Encompass Digital Media Services, London.

Germany's DW built the relay station in Sri Lanka in 1980 for mainly for international shortwave (HF) broadcasting. It also has a medium wave transmitter for South Asia.

Full story at :

https://economynext.com/sri-lanka-to-sell-airtime-on-ex-dw-relay-station-to-encompass-digital-media-77342/



Saturday, December 26, 2020

22nd annual Ham Radio University (HRU) educational conference

With COVID-19 restrictions precluding an in-person gathering, the 22nd annual Ham Radio University (HRU) educational conference will be held as a virtual event on Saturday, January 9, 2021, from 8 AM to 4 PM EST (1300 – 2100 UTC) as a GoToWebinar online video conference.

Individual registration is now open for HRU's 14 informational presentations covering a broad range of amateur radio activities. Topics include amateur radio emergency communications; the basics of HF operating; communicating through amateur radio Earth satellites; remote station operating over the internet; software defined radios; HF and UHF digital communications, and using Raspberry Pi computers in amateur radio.

More at :

Radio Free Asia, Middle East Broadcasting Networks Get New Leaders

The U.S. Agency for Global Media announced Tuesday that Stephen Yates will be the next president of Radio Free Asia and Victoria Coates will lead the Middle East Broadcasting Networks. Yates, who was an aide to former Vice President Dick Cheney, replaces acting president Parameswaran Ponnudurai. 

More at : 

Wednesday, December 23, 2020

NDR Christmas Special - 24th Dec 2020

NDR Christmas Special special transmissions via Media Broadcast on 24th Dec'20

24th December 2020 (Thursday)

1900-2100 UTC

6030 kHz ERV Europe
6080 kHz NAU Atlantic - North
9570 kHz MOS Indian Ocean East
9740 kHz NAU Indian Ocean West
9800 kHz ISS Atlantic/Indian Ocean(South Africa)
11650 kHz ISS  Atlantic - South

2100-2300 UTC

6145 kHz NAU Atlantic - North
6155 kHz ERV Europe
9590 kHz ISS Atlantic/Indian Ocean(South Africa)  
9675 kHz MOS Indian Ocean East
9740 kHz NAU Indian Ocean West
9830 kHz ISS Atlantic - South

Please send your answer and reception reports to : ndr@ndr.de  michael.puetz@media-broadcast.com

On Christmas Eve, Norddeutsche Rundfunndr broadcasts messages to sailors all over the world in the radio broadcast "Gruss an Bord" or "Greeting aboard" - greetings to the ship's crew in their home country. The greetings to the sailors were recorded at two "greeting on board" events in the Adventszeit: on 4 December in the  Cultural memory in Wilhelmine gear in neutral and on December 11 in the Hamburg Seemannsmission "Duckdalben". Relatives and friends had the opportunity to wish their loved ones at sea a happy holiday and a good new year. The show "Greeting aboard" was heard for Christmas 1953 for the first time on the radio. It is thus one of the oldest existing radio broadcasts in the world.

More about program "Gruss an Bord"



Vatican Radio Special Broadcasts on 24 & 25 December

Details of the Vatican Radio special broadcasts on shortwave for 24 and 25 December have now been published at https://www.vaticannews.va/en/epg.html#events as follows:

24 December  1600-1645  Holy Mass in Chinese
6105  7335  (to Asia)
From the Chapel of the Annunciation of Palazzo Pio, Holy Mass in Chinese on the occasion of Holy Christmas

24 December  1825-2015  Holy Mass
English commentary 5970 (to Asia)  6080 (to Africa)  7230 (to Middle East)
French commentary 7305 (to Africa)
Holy Mass on Christmas Eve 18:25 - 20:15 From St. Peter's Basilica, Holy Mass on Christmas Eve presided over by Pope Francis.

25 December  1055-1130  Urbi et Orbi Blessing
English commentary 15575 (to Africa)
Portuguese commentary 17805 (to Europe & Africa)
French commentary 17825 (to Africa)
Arabic commentary 15595 (to Middle East)
From the Blessing Hall, Pope Francis' Christmas Message and "Urbi et Orbi" Blessing.

(Alan Roe, Teddington, UK via WOR list)

Monday, December 21, 2020

Radio Free Asia announces year of the Ox QSL

Radio Free Asia (RFA) has announced its latest QSL card commemorating 2021 as the Year of the Ox according to the Chinese astrology calendar. 

People born in ox years are considered kind, caring, logical, positive, having a great deal of common sense, and live with their feet 'firmly planted on the ground.' They are also considered to be hard workers in order to provide comfort and security for their families, while also highly intelligent and strong minded. The ox is one of 12 animals used in the Chinese Zodiac; the others are tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog, pig and rat. 

This QSL card confirms all valid reception reports from January 1 – April 30, 2021. The design was created by RFA's Brian Powell.

Created by Congress in 1994 and incorporated in 1996, RFA broadcasts in Burmese, Cantonese, Khmer, Korean to North Korea, Lao, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese, Tibetan (including Uke, Amdo, and Kham dialects), and Uyghur. RFA strives for accuracy, balance, and fairness in our editorial content. As a 'surrogate' broadcaster, RFA provides news and commentary specific to each of our target countries, acting as the free press these countries lack. RFA broadcasts only in local languages and dialects, and most of our broadcasts comprise news of specific local interest. 

More information about RFA, including our current broadcast frequency schedule, is always available at www.rfa.org.

RFA encourages listeners to submit reception reports. Reception reports are valuable to RFA as they help us evaluate the signal strength and quality of our transmissions. RFA confirms all accurate reception reports by mailing a QSL card to the listener. RFA welcomes all reception report submissions at http://techweb.rfa.org (follow the QSL REPORTS link) not only from DX'ers, but also from our general listening audience.

Reception reports are also accepted by email at qsl@rfa.org and by mail to:
Reception Reports
Radio Free Asia
2025 M. Street NW, Suite 300
Washington DC 20036
United States of America

(A.J.Janitschek, RFA)

Friday, December 11, 2020

DRM 2020 - New E-book published

E-book published - Digital Radio DRM, Stronger than Ever, Looks with Confidence to 2021

In its 100th anniversary year the DRM Consortium salutes radio as the mass digital communication platform for our challenging times. To celebrate the unique and relevant place of radio in people's lives and the progress made by Digital Radio Mondiale in this unprecedented year, DRM consortium has created first ever DRM e-book. Its aim is to give you a succinct overview of the best DRM events, activities and successes in 2020, while offering you a varied and wide digest of information, opinions and updates on DRM and digital radio.

In 2020 the value of the only global, open, all band digital audio broadcasting system, DRM, was conveyed to more people, further afield, than ever before. Old and new stakeholders and enthusiasts were the audience in the 2020 virtual conference rooms where a "show and tell" approach demonstrated DRM's services and advantages in both AM and FM bands.

DRM Consortium introduced new technical development of the extra-efficient use of DRM FM and devoted a lot of attention to DRM's capabilities to deliver multimedia and, therefore, textual information needed not only Emergency Warning Functionality (EWF) but also to facilitate distance learning. This is an area they aim to develop in 2021.

Manufacturers from China, India, Germany, South Korea, and U.K showcased dozens of receivers for AM (medium wave) but also for digital FM and in 2021. As manufacturers will receive increased orders, we expect them to bring larger volumes of affordable receivers to the market, as more countries adopt DRM.

Ruxandra Obreja, DRM Chairman, stated that "the new DRM e-book gives a complete, up-to-the minute valuable information on DRM. The DRM e-book demonstrates that this all band-standard has registered significant progress in 2020 and is poised for even bigger successes in 2021, when millions of new and old listeners will discover and rediscover the wonder of radio, of digital radio DRM."

Download the DRM 2020 e-book here :

World Music Radio (WMR) on new frequency 15790 kHz

World Music Radio (WMR) has a new frequency in the 19 mb: 15790 kHz (Previously on 15805) On the air every Saturday and Sunday 0700-2000 UTC. Power is 200 W into a 3 element yagi (due South). 

Testing from today 11th Dec, 2020 (Friday) if everything works ok. I will probably leave the transmitter on all weekend - from now until 13th Dec, Sunday 2000 UTC. 

Reception reports are welcome to World Music Radio, PO Box 112, DK-8960 Randers SØ, Denmark (for a printed QSL-card, pennant and stickers - please enclose return postage 2 IRCs or 5 euro if you can) or via email to wmr@wmr.dk (for an eQSL). Please note that reception reports using remote receivers are not QSLed. I try to reply to all reports within 1-2 months. 

(Stig Hartvig Nielsen)

Wednesday, December 09, 2020

Band 2 Tropo Logs at 0330-0430 UTC, 9th Dec 2020

Band 2 Tropo Logs at 0330-0430 UTC, 9th Dec 2020

90.4 Radio Hint, Ghaziabad CRS
90.8 Suno Sharda, Greater Noida CRS
91.2 Radio Lok Manch, Greater Noida  CRS
91.9 Radio City, Bareilley
93.7 Fever FM, Agra
94.1 Current FM, Aligarh
94.5 Tadka FM,Agra
94.9 Fever FM, Aligarh
98.6 Radio Bheri FM,Nepal
99.4 Shuklaphanta FM, Nepal, CRS
100.2 AIR Patiala
100.4 AIR Bareilley (Weak co-ch in bg)
100.5 AIR Dehradun 555
100.7 AIR Lucknow
100.9 AIR Kasauli
101.3 AIR Aligarh
101.4 AIR Kurukshetra
101.6 AIR Lucknow
101.7 AIR Meerut
101.8 Kantipur FM, Nepal
101.9 AIR Kotputli +Faizabad mixing
102.1 AIR Mussourie
102.2 AIR Mathura
102.3 AIR Lakhimpur Kheri
103.0 Radio Nepal
103.1 AIR Alwar
103.5 AIR Rohtak VBS
103.7 AIR Kanpur VBS
104.6 Tadka FM, Aligarh
107.4 Radio Noida , CRS

(SONY XDR-S10HDiP + Stacked GP)